Fernando R. Fernholz is Director of the Program on Project Appraisal and Risk Management (PARM) at DCID and is a Professor of the Practice at Duke University where he teaches Economic Development, Policies for Development and Public Finance Courses. He has been faculty of the PARM program since 1985. He has lectured on public debt, finance, balance of payments, macroeconomic issues in courses and workshops in various countries in different regions and agencies like the World Bank. He was a Development Associate working with the Public Finance Group of HIID and was resident advisor in different countries in Asia and Africa. He has done short-term advisory work in countries such as Russia, India, Panama, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Zambia, Uganda, Namibia, and Mozambique. He recently co-authored two studies: expansionary public investment impacts during the financial crisis in 2013 and the economic opportunity cost of capital (or the discount rate) for Mexico in 2014.This work was updated in 2017. Dr. Fernholz headed his own consulting, construction and data processing companies for many years in Bolivia. His education includes a Master of Civil Engineering from the RWTH Aachen in Germany, Master of Public Administration at the Kennedy School of Government and a Ph.D. in Economics from Boston University.