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Gill was formerly director for development policy in the Office of the Chief Economist at the World Bank in Washington, D.C. He has held a number of leadership positions at the World Bank, including chief economist for Europe and Central Asia and staff director for the 2009 World Development Report on Economic Geography. He also was economic adviser in the World Bank’s East Asia and Pacific Regional Office and lead economist for human development in Latin America and the Caribbean. His pioneering work includes introducing the concept of the “middle income trap” to describe how developing countries stagnate after reaching a certain level of income. Gill holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago and has taught at Georgetown University, the State University of New York at Buffalo and the University of Chicago.